Roles and Rules™ represents the practical application of a systematic philosophy to psychology, as well as to public life.  That philosophy is an epistemology, which is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and the validity of knowledge.  In epistemology, what counts is not what you may know.  What counts is how you  know whatever you may you may know.

Two equally fundamental ways of knowing underlie all that we may know.  Their names are ‘dualism’ and ‘monism’.  Dualism and monism carry complicated histories.  Simply put, dualism is the philosophy that there must be two explanatory principles, and therefore, that there must be two kinds of things to explain.  ‘Good versus evil’, ‘us versus them’, and ‘mind versus body’ are examples of dualistic knowing.  The perception of ‘good versus evil’ is dualistic because it of establishing them as distinct classes or categories.  Rules, such as laws of mathematics and physics, are monistic because they apply uniformly.   In monism, there is one explanatory principle, and so there are no different kinds of things to explain.  Instead, there are only interactions to explain.  These , interactions may be such as among objects, numbers,  or people.  Rules are monistic because they apply uniformly, to every number and particle, and in a democracy, to every person.  The rules of baseball are monistic, because they apply to interactions among all the players in the game.   It is monisticm to say that rules of mathematics and scientific evidence can explain whatever may exist.  The rules of baseball are monistic, because they apply to interactions among all the players in the game.

You may wonder, Can that distinction explain all there is, or all we can know?  The answer is yes.  Anything you can understand or perceive is an amalgam of the 2 ways of knowing.  The mind works this way, and the brain is wired exactly this way.  Visual perception both classes something as a kind of thing, and also notes how it moves and interacts.  The eyes are a direct, specialized extension of the brain.  The retina is a membrane at the back of the eyes that picks up signals of light so that they may pass on to the interior of the brain for processing.  There are two different kinds of receptors on the retina, one for color and the other for black and white.  These are called, cones and rods.  The rods are sensitive to movement, but cannot resolve detail.  The cones are concentrated in one spot and receive the most focused light, so that the brain may identify and classify what things are.

Here are three most lovely downloads:

-sample chapter 1
-sample  chapter 2

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